Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a popular paradigm in the lexicon of today’s business. CSR generally involves voluntary actions by ﬁrms to reduce their environmental impacts, make their products safer or healthier, or contribute to the communities in which their operations and facilities are located. The question of whether doing good and doing well converge has waxed and waned over recent decades. Although an increasing number of signiﬁcant studies into CSR have been developed and analysed from different scholarly perspectives, a few fundamental questions remain unanswered. With Korean institutional environment and industry survey data, we adopt an institutional perspective to explore CSR practice and development in the Korean business context. In particular, social legitimacy, globalisation, and the recent movement towards corporate sustainability management are considered from different theoretical CSR perspectives. We ﬁnd that these institutions (high regulative pressure, unique normative setting, and critical cognitive-cultural environment) obviously affect Korean ﬁrms in their adoption, implementation, and practice of CSR simultaneously. Also we ﬁnd that governmental regulatory legislations and policy obviously have an effect on a ﬁrm’s CSR practice and implementation. Importantly, governmental legislation and incentives can play an important role in CSR implementation and practice. It is also worth noting that CSR practice is not static but is dynamic, with regulatory legislations and norms.